Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Special Edition Submission: "3D Printing for Medicine: biomaterials, processes and techniques"

Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019): March-September

Bio-inks for 3D extrusion-based bio-printed scaffolds: Printability assessment



Three-dimensional bioprinting is a new technology that should be integrated into several areas, including medical technology. However, before designing and applying it on a large scale, several biophysical parameters and particularly printability need to be established. In the present work, general characteristics of the extrusion method, bioinks, and scaffolds are reviewed. Printability analysis of 3D bioprinting is also included.


  1. Chia HN and Wu BM, Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials. J. Biol. Eng. 9: 4. (2015). DOI: 10.1186/s13036-015-0001-4.
  2. Murphy SV and Atala A, 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. Nature Biotech. 32: 773–785 (2014). DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2958.
  3. Zhu W et al., 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis. Nanomedicine 12: 69–79 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2015.09.010.
  4. Ouyang L et al., Effect of bioink properties on printability and cell viability for 3D bioplotting of embryonic stem cells. Biofabrication 8: 3, 035020 (2016). DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035020.
  5. Peng W et al., 3D bioprinting for drug discovery and development in pharmaceutics. Acta Biomat. 57: 26-46 (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.05.025.
  6. Ozbolat IT and Hospodiuk M, Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting. Biomaterials 76: 321-343 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.10.076.
  7. Carletti E et al., Scaffolds for tissue engineering and 3D cell culture. Meth. Mol. Biol. 695: 17-39 (2011). DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60761-984-0_2.
  8. Tian XY et al., Characterization of the flow behavior of alginate/hydroxyapatite mixtures for tissue scaffold fabrication. Biofabrication 1: 4, 045005 (2009). DOI: 10.1088/1758-5082/1/4/045005.
  9. Li H et al., Rheological study on 3D printability of alginate hydrogel and effect of graphene oxide. Int. J. Bioprint. 2: 54-66 (2016). DOI: 10.18063/IJB.2016.02.007.
  10. Sarker M and Chen XB, Modeling the flow behavior and flow rate of medium viscosity alginate for scaffold fabrication with a 3D bioplotter. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 139: 8, 81002 (2017). DOI: 10.1115/1.4036226.
  11. Liu J and Yan C, 3D printing of scaffolds for tissue engineering. In 3D Printing, ed. by Cvetković D., Intech Open, UK, 7: 137-154 (2018) DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78145.
  12. Kyle S et al., ‘Printability' of candidate biomaterials for extrusion based 3D printing: State-of-the-art. Adv. Health Mat. 6: 16 (2017). DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201700264.
  13. Buswell RA et al., 3D printing using concrete extrusion: A roadmap for research. Cement Concrete Res. 112: 37-49 (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2018.05.006.
  14. Jin Y et al., Printability study of hydrogel solution extrusion in nanoclay yield-tress bath during printing-then-gelation biofabrication. Mat. Sci. Eng. C 80: 313-315 (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.144.
  15. Pati F et al., Extrusion Bioprinting. Essentials of 3D Biofabrication and Translation. A. Atala and J.J, Yoo (Editors), Elsevier. Pp. 123-152 (2015). DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800972-7.00007-4.
  16. Zhang X et al., Tissue engineering applications of three-dimensional bioprinting, Cell. Biochem. Biophys. 72: 777-782 (2015). DOI: 10.1007/s12013-015-0531-x.
  17. DeSimone E et al., Biofabrication of 3D constructs: Fabrication technologies and spider silk proteins as bioinks. Pure Appl. Chem. 87: 737-749 (2015). DOI: 10.1515/pac-2015-0106.
  18. Jun Y et al., Trends on physical understanding of bioink printability. Bio-Design Manufact. 2: 50–54 (2019). DOI: 10.1007/s42242-019-00033-y.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...